According to the Nigeria Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2022, approximately 133 million people, or 62.9% of the population, in Nigeria are multidimensionally poor. This means that they experience deprivations in more than one dimension, or in at least 26% of weighted deprivations. The average deprivation score among poor people is 40.9%.
The poverty in Nigeria manifests not just in a lack of income but also in the lack of basic amenities such as access to healthcare, education, water, adequate sanitation, and clean cooking fuels. A significant portion of the poor population is deprived of clean cooking fuel, adequate sanitation, and access to healthcare.
Of the multidimensionally poor population, 65% (86.1 million) live in the North, while 35% (nearly 47 million) live in the South. The poorest districts in Kebbi South and Bayelsa have the highest intensity of poverty, with each poor person lacking in 51% of the weighted MPI indicators.
Moreover, 7 out of 10 Nigerians living in rural areas are multi-dimensionally poor, compared to 4 out of 10 in urban areas. Multidimensional poverty is higher in rural areas, where 72.0% of people are poor, compared to 42.0% of people in urban areas. Approximately 70% of Nigeria’s population lives in rural areas, yet these areas are home to 80% of the country’s poor. The intensity of poverty in rural areas is also higher, at 41.9%, compared to 36.9% in urban areas.
Overall, the data suggests that poverty in Nigeria is multidimensional, with a significant portion of the population lacking basic amenities and access to healthcare. Rural areas have higher levels of multidimensional poverty and intensity of poverty, highlighting the need for targeted poverty reduction efforts in these areas.
The data on multidimensional and monetary poverty in Nigeria paints a grim picture that highlights the need for more effective policies as well as greater investment by governments and other stakeholders in social protection programs that can help reduce these types of deprivations among Nigerian citizens. In particular, there is an urgent need for targeted interventions aimed at reducing extreme levels of deprivation across different parts of the country, particularly those areas with higher concentrations or pockets where multiple deprivations exist side-by-side, such as lack of access to healthcare services combined with inadequate sanitation facilities or limited access to clean cooking fuels along with food insecurity issues.
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